I also have a lot USB hdd issues. I bought a Seagate Deskdrive which sometimes worked at the USB 2.0 port. But very likely failed on USB 3.0.
But lately also on USB 2.0 I see issues. Then I shucked the drive and bought a Inoteck USB 3.0 SATA adapter. Same problem here.
My personal issue is a bit that I dont know how to monitor or debug all these situations. I just see EOF errors while copying files via my docker container "cloud commander". And I see io errors in dmesg.
Summary is...all these USB drives perfectly work on my windows machine, but rarely to never work on my Intel board running openmediavault/Debian with kernel 6.1 (...and also 5.19).
Edit: I stopped plugging the external drives into the server to move data. I am using a notebook wired to local network and transfer the data via shared folders. I get better speed, no interruptions and no data corruptions.